Category Archives: Neurodiversity


Some on you may remember that as I’m editing my book for publication, parts of the material edited out is being posted here. This is from the first chapter, in a section on autistic experiences of emotion–an attempt to counter the “emotionless autistic” stereotype. So, here is “Anger . . .

What triggers your rage attacks?” someone asked on the Wrong Planet website.  The answers were many and varied.  “Severe bullying.” “When I felt powerless to control something.” “Cruelty.” “Feeling as if my integrity has been questioned.” “Being called ‘crazy’.” “People hurting my friends.” “When somebody tries to take my parking space” (This individual lives in New York City.) “Noise pollution.” “When people yell at me.” “Parents who abuse their children.” “Obnoxiously loud people. Obnoxiously arrogant people. Obnoxious people in general.” “Frustration from not being able to get a job.” “Lack of ability to communicate verbally.”[1]   

Their lives full of frustrations, disappointments, and infuriating experiences of cruelty and dismissal, people with autism are frequently angry.  And often this anger is very intense:

Emotions, we feel them more intensely than others and sometimes it’s too much handle. Especially emotions such as anger and frustration. In my case, I do have quite the temper, however, I JUST about manage to contain and internalise it. I fear the day I finally lose grasp and actually express anger.[2]

Young autistic children, in particular, have tremendous difficulty controlling their anger.  It tends to explode in the form of meltdowns.  The warning signs may be very subtle, hard for neurotypical adults to detect.  Then the meltdown appears to come out of nowhere, even when it has actually been building for some time.  Here an adult recalls her childhood emotions:

On the surface everything looked calm, right up to the point where the pressure became too much and I exploded with violent fury. I was never able to talk about it: the feelings were so intense that I couldn’t contain them and all I could vocalise were screams of anguished rage.  It was an anger born as much of frustration at my inability to identify and turn my emotions into words as it was of my distress and discomfort.[3]

Most children on the autism spectrum do gradually learn to contain their anger, in a process that may go unnoticed by neurotypical adults.  Here an eleven-year-old autistic student tries to control his meltdown after being severely bullied all day at school:

He stepped out [of the school] to see his papers being blown away, the girl who was being suspended for hitting him all day having apparently dumped out his things. And that’s when the meltdown occurred. He began picking up desks and throwing them. Keep in mind that he’s eleven. All of the desks and chairs ended up in a pile in the middle of the room. It was a slow-motion rage — oddly controlled, as he went out of his way to make sure he never threw a chair or desk in such a way that I would be hit by one.[4]

This angry child “went out of his way” to make sure that no one would be hurt by his actions.  Fortunately, the writer, an autistic teacher, noticed this.  A neurotypical teacher might have just focused on his throwing furniture and punished accordingly.

By the time autistic children grow into adults, they are usually able to avoid meltdowns and aggression, even when they are angry.  Of course, some adult autistics, just like some neurotypicals, never master this skill and continue to have short fuses and violent outbursts throughout their lives.  But the majority will at most allow themselves to yell at someone, or they will have a quiet “shutdown” (which usually involves seeking isolation and then sobbing).  

The real problem is that, even when they control their behavior, the anger does not go away.  Many autistics experience anger on a regular basis.  They lead very difficult and frustrating lives, and, though they may not act out aggressively, they are still prone to “angry rumination,” constantly dwelling on the things that have made them angry, going over and over events in their minds.  Autistics are prone to perseverating on particular thoughts anyway, and upsetting events can easily preoccupy them for long periods of time.  In the general population, such “angry rumination” is associated with a variety of negative psychological outcomes.  While little research has been done on the phenomenon in autistic adults, two studies have shown an association between their angry rumination and problems with anxiety and depression.[5]   More research on ways to block rumination in autistics and to lessen stress in autistic lives seems long overdue.

[1] “What Triggers Your Rage Attacks” on the Wrong Planet website, December, 2017:

[2] DestinedToBeAPotato, in the “do you have trouble controlling ur anger?” discussion on the Wrong Planet website, February 15, 2016:

[3] Alexandra Forshaw, “The Arrogance of Sanity,” on her blog My Autistic Dance, October 28, 2018:

[4] Troy Camplin, “Autism in the Schools — A Personal Narrative,” on his An Intense World blog, November 21, 2017:

[5] Lake-Hui Quek, et al., “Co-Occurring Anger in Young People With Asperger’s Syndrome,” Journal of Clinical Psychology 68:10 (October, 2012), 1142-48; Shivani Patel, “Association between anger rumination and autism symptom severity, depression symptoms, aggression, and general dysregulation in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder,” Autism 21:2 (February, 2017), 181-89.

Autistic Poverty, Part 1

As noted in a previous post, I am trying to make my book manuscript shorter (and therefore, readable). So I’m putting some of the material here on this blog. This is the first of several posts on autistic poverty and its impact on where people live.

Autism traits that cause employment issues mean we may end up with less earning power, less earning power means we wind up in places that trigger exactly those issues caused by the autism, which in turn makes us more stressed and even more susceptible to our own challenges and it’s harder to cope with them successfully, which leads to employement issues, which leads to less earning power, which leads to living in the sh***y place . . .[1]

Over the past few years, the financial situation for autistic adults has actually improved slightly.  A few companies are realizing the benefits of “hiring autistic” and are changing their practices accordingly.  It looks as though segregated workshops paying sub-minimum wages may soon be phased out.  Those who can find a place in the integrated workforce are earning more and can live a somewhat better life.  But this minor improvement starts from an abysmal base.  It is still a fact that only about 14% of autistic adults hold regular jobs, and many of these work fewer hours and at lower wages than they would like.  Financial independence, the foundation for personal independence as it is understood in our society, remains elusive even for those who work.  For the unemployed majority of autistic adults, the situation is even worse.  Unless their families are well-off and choose to support them, those without jobs end up living in poverty—often desperate, life-threatening poverty.

Consider the housing situation.  Solid data is hard to find because so many adult autistics fly under the radar.  But a 2017 report from the Drexel University Autism Center found that about 10% of autistic adults lived independently, 49% lived with parents or other relatives, 27% were in group homes, another 8% were in institutions, and the last 5% were in “other” living situations.[2]  These figures resemble those found in other studies, so we can consider them as relatively reliable. [3]

Many autistic people aspire to living somewhere on their own.  Perhaps this is because they wish to maintain their own standards of cleanliness.[4]  Or they may not feel safe living with others because of earlier experiences:

. . . my mindset from an early age is that there was no other way of living but independently, because that represented safety to me, and I made my own way because my trust in people was very much absent as a result of experience.[5]

Others may prefer to have a space where they don’t have to interact with other people:

I have been on my own since I was a teen. I will be honest not having supports resulted in a lot of abuse. With that said, for the last few years or so I have been on my own again (without a roommate or anything), and it is a wonderful experience. I pay all my bills, have my own car, make my own schedule. My parents are both dead, and I have no family for thousands of miles. I am alone and have been for a while now besides my two kids. More and more I appreciate the aloneness and look forward to being an empty nester one day.[6]

Still others see living on their own as a meaningful symbol of independence.

We should bear in mind, though, that some autistics live alone because their families have rejected them:

I was threatened with abandonment even before school age, so I got ready ASAP. I was almost 18 before I got kicked out. I’ve been homeless a few times, but never missed any meals.[7]

I have been on and off homeless since my mom kicked me out when I turned 18 . . . [8]

So “living independently” is not always a matter of choice.

[1] BirdInFlight, in the “Poverty is Harder with Aspergers” discussion on the Wrong Planet website, October 13, 2017:

[2] Anne Roux, et al., National Autism Indicators Report: Developmental Disability Services and Outcomes in Adulthood (Philadelphia, PA:  Drexel University Autism Institute, 2017).

[3] Cindy Skinner, et al., “Autistic Disorder: A 20 Year Chronicle,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 51 (2021), 677-84.

[4] dragonfire42, in the “What’s on your mind right now?” discussion on the AutismForums website, July 29, 2020:

[5] B19, in the “Anybody Live Independently?” discussion on the Wrong Planet website, October 26, 2017:

[6] browneyedgirlslowingdown, in the “Can Autistic Adults Live Independently?” discussion on the Wrong Planet website, June 10, 2021:

[7] Dear_one, in the “Anybody Live Independently?” discussion on the Wrong Planet website, October 28, 2017:

[8] 100skerls, in the “Near the end of my efforts, about to just give up” discussion on the AutismForums website, June 11, 2019:

Hi. I still exist

Been a rough few months. Personal injuries. Family crises. The world in flames. You know the drill . . .

Anyway, just to let you know that I’ve started on the final chapter of my book (yay!!) So it should be out in 1923. Look for What Today Withholds: Autism and Human Rights in the United States. Available soon (well, in a few months) on Amazon.

Uh Oh. Here comes data…

Dear Folks. As you know, I’ve been working for years now on a book on autism and human rights. I’ve recently been looking for publishers, and one of them, on their submission portal, asked how long the book was. So I went back and counted words.

Whoops! It’s way, WAY longer than anyone is going to publish or most normal (autistic or neurotypical) people would want to read. Being who I am, I need to provide data to back up the points I make. But the data is making the book far too long. So–change of plan.

I’m going to take most of the data and detailed arguments about the data out of the book and put it here on my blog. So if anyone wants to know why I say certain things in the book, the back-up information will be here.

Of course, dear readers, that means YOU get stuck with all that data. I will do my best to feed it to you in small and fairly palatable chunks, and to intersperse it with other things. I hope you will stick with me, because this information is important and should be widely known.

Thanks for your patience.